Some Basic Data On The Nigerian Petroleum Industry (Upstream)

Some Basic Data On The Nigerian Petroleum Industry (Upstream)

 LIST OF CRUDE OIL EXPORT TERMINALS IN NIGERIA (29 Nos.)

 

OPERATOR S/NO TERMINAL LOCATION FACILITY CRUDE STREAM STORAGE CAPACITY (BARRELS)
SHELL/SNEPCO 1 BONNY ONSHORE TERMINAL BONNY LIGHT 3,563,000
2 FORCADOS ONSHORE TERMINAL FROCADOS BLEND 3,140,000
3 SEA EAGLE OFFSHORE FPSO EA CRUDE 1,400,000
4 BONGA OFFSHORE FPSO BONGA CRUDE 1,850,000
EXXONMOBIL 5 QUA IBOE ONSHORE TERMINAL QUA IBOE LIGHT /CONDENSATE 4,396,000 / 1,925,000
6 YOHO OFFSHORE FPSO YOHO CRUDE 1,925,000
7 ERHA OFFSHORE FPSO ERHA CRUDE 2,142,600
8 USAN OFFSHORE FPSO USAN CRUDE 1,861,000
CHEVRON 9 ESCRAVOS ONSHORE TERMINAL ESCRAVOS LIGHT 1,833,822
10 PENNINGTON OFFSHORE FSO PENNINGTON LIGHT 1,350,000
11 AGBAMI OFFSHORE FPSO AGBAMI CRUDE 2,200,000
AGIP 12 BRASS ONSHORE TERMINAL BRASS BLEND 2,780,000
13 ABO OFFSHORE FPSO ABO CRUDE 933,130
ALLIED ENERGY 14 OYO OFFSHORE FSO OYO CRUDE 980,000
NPDC 15 OKONO OFFSHORE FPSO OKONO CRUDE 1,055,000
TOTAL E&P 16 AMENAM/ODUDU OFFSHORE FSO AMENAM BLEND 2,418,000
17 AKPO OFFSHORE FPSO AKPO CONDENSATE 2,000,000
ADDAX 18 ANTAN OFFSHORE FPSO ANTAN BLEND 1,628,460
19 OKWORI OFFSHORE FPSO OKWORI CRUDE 1,500,000
AMNI 20 OKORO OFFSHORE FPSO OKORO CRUDE 200,000
21 IMA OFFSHORE FSO IMA CONDENSATE 2,400,000
EXPRESS/ATLAS 22 UKPOKITI OFFSHORE FPSO UKPOKITI CRUDE 2,000,000
CAVENDISH 23 OBE OFFSHORE FPSO

(NOT-ACTIVE)

OBE CRUDE 212,067
STERLING OIL 24 TULJA OFFSHORE FSO OKWUIBOME CRUDE 2,000,000
ORIENTAL OIL 25 EBOK OFFSHORE FSO EBOK CRUDE 1,200,000

 

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LIST OF GAS AND PRODUCT EXPORT TERMINALS IN NIGERIA

 

OPERATOR S/NO TERMINAL LOCATION FACILITY PRODUCT CAPACITY (BARRELS)
EXXONMOBIL 1 BRT ONSHORE TERMINAL C3 / C4 / C5 690,000 / 690,000 /
570,000
CHEVRON 2 ESCRAVOS LPG OFFSHORE FSO LPG MIX 32,00MT
3 ESCRAVOS (EGP/EGTL) Products Terminal ONSHORE TERMINAL CONDENSATE, NAPHTHA, DEISEL 580,000/380,000/
580,000
NLNG 4 NLNG ONSHORE TERMINAL LNG, C3/C4/C5

 

MODES OF OIL & GAS PRODUCTION

 

JOINT VENTURE AGREEMENTS (JV)

 

A joint venture agreement is an agreement whereby two or more partners form a working association for the production of oil and gas, while retaining their legal rights as independent companies. Costs (capital) is contributed on a project-by-project basis through “Cash Calls”, while gross income (less operating costs) is distributed in accordance with working interest percentages. Operations are managed by one of the partners (Operator) in accordance with the agreement.

 

S/N Description NNPC % Partner(s) %
1 NNPC/Shell 55 45
2 NNPC/Mobil 60 40
3 NNPC/Agip 60 40
4 NNPC/Chevron 60 40
5 NNPC/Total + UUOA 60 40
6 NNPC/Panocean 60 40
7 NNPC/Newcross 55 45
8 NNPC/Eroton 55 45
9 NNPC/Aiteo 55 45
10 NNPC/SEPLAT 60 40
11 NNPC/FIRST E&P 55 45

 

 

 

JV – CARRY FUNDING ARRANGEMENTS

 

This is an Alternative Funding arrangement in which Joint Venture (JV) Partner(s), in addition to its equity contribution for the execution of Capital Projects, carries NNPC’s equity contribution in form of a loan which is payable through tax offsets (Carry Tax relief) and in-kind (i.e. crude oil) for balance of Carry Cost (Carry Oil) with Profit share (Share Oil) as compensation/cost of carry. Carrying Party pays royalty and PPT (Petroleum Profit Tax) on Carry and Shared Oil along with its obligations on normal JV equity.

 

S/N PROJECT YEAR EXECUTED OPERATOR STATUS
1 EA/EJA Field Development Project 1999 Shell Terminated & Closed Out
2 Amenam/Kpono Field Development (AK1) 2000 Total Suspended/Arbitration
3 Yoho Development Project 2002 Mobil Terminated/Awaiting Close-out
4 Meren-X Development Project 2004 Chevron Terminated/Awaiting Close-out
5 Meji Re-Development Project 2004 Chevron Terminated/Awaiting Close-out
6 Delta South Central Development Project 2004 Chevron Terminated/Awaiting Close-out
7 Amenam/Kpono Financing Agreement (AK2) 2005 Total Terminated/Awaiting Close-out
8 Production Improvement Project I (PIP I) 2005 Mobil Terminated/Awaiting Close-out
9 Production Improvement Project II (PIP-II) 2006 Mobil Terminated/Awaiting Close-out
10 North Swamp Re-Entry Project 2005 Chevron Active
11 South Offshore Water Injection Project (SOWIP) 2005 Chevron Active
12 Escravos Gas Project – Phase 3 (EGP3) 2005 Chevron Active
13 Escravos Gas to Liquid Project (EGTL) 2005 Chevron Active (Why the colour)
14 Satellite Field Development Project (3rd Party) 2005 Mobil Active
15 NGL II (East Area) Project (3rd Party) 2005 Mobil Active
16 Reserve Development Project (3rd   Party) 2012 Mobil Active

 

JV – MODIFIED CARRY ARRANGEMENTS

 

It is a modification of existing Carry Agreement (CA) in which the recovery of the full capital cost is made through tax offsets (Carry Tax Relief) by the carrying party and the balance of the carry cost (Carry Oil) is lifted by NNPC and cash remitted to the Carrying Parties account. NNPC also lifts the resultant royalty and PPT on the Carry and Shared Oil and pays to the relevant DPR and FIRS accounts.

 

S/N CONTRACT NAME OPERATOR COMMENCEMENT DATE STATUS
1 2007-2009 MPN BUNDLE MPN 2009 ACTIVE
2 2010 DRILLING BUNDLE MPN 2010 ACTIVE
3 2010 OSO RE/CONDENSATE MPN 2010 ACTIVE
4 GBARAN-UBIE SPDC 2009 ACTIVE
5 NEMBE CREEK BUNDLE SPDC 2009 ACTIVE
6 CAWTHORNE CHENNEL SPDC 2009 ACTIVE
7 GBARAN-UBIE PHASE 2 SPDC 2012 ACTIVE
8 TNP BUNDLE SPDC 2012 ACTIVE
9 NLNG T4/T5 NAOC 2009 ACTIVE
10 BENIBOYE/EBOCHA NAOC 2010 ACTIVE
11 OML 58 UPGRADE TEPNG 2009 ACTIVE
12 OFON PHASE 2 TEPNG 2009 ACTIVE
13 2008 CHEVRON CHEVRON 2009 ACTIVE

 

PRODUCTION SHARING CONTRACTS (PSC)

 

A Production Sharing Contract arrangement is one in which a Company, with the prerequisite financial and technical capabilities, prospects for oil and gas with the aim of recovering its investment and sharing the rewards with the host country.

 

S/No  

 

CONTRACTORS/OPERATORS

BLOCKS  

 

MAJOR FIELDS

 

 

CONTRACT YEAR

 

1ST OIL
DATE

OPLS OMLS
1 Addax Petr. Dev. (Nig.) Ltd. 98/118 123/124 Antan/Brass 1973/1998 May-98
2 Addax Petr. Expl. (Nig.) Ltd. 90/225 126/137 Okwori 1992/1998 Mar-05
3 Nigerian Agip Exploration 316 125 Abo 1993 Apr-03
4 Shell Nig. Expl. & Prod. Co. 212 118 Bonga 1993 Nov-05
5 Esso Expl. & Prod. Nig. Ltd. 209 133 Erha 1993 Mar-06
6 Star Deep-Water Petr. Ltd. 216 127 Agbami Unit Tract 1 1993 Sep-08
7 Statoil Nigeria Limited 217 128 Agbami Unit Tract 2 1993 Sep-08
8 Total Upstream Nig. Limited 246 130 Akpo Main/Akpo Back-in 1998/2005 Mar-09
9 Sterling Oil Expl. & Energy 280 143 Okwuibome 2006 Apr-11
10 Total Expl. Prod. Nig. Ltd. 222 138 Usan 1993 Mar-12
     
11 Agip Energy & Natural Resources 472 116 Agbara 1979/1999 1985

 

INDEPENDENT PRODUCERS

 

  Company Block Crude Type
1 Consolidated Oil OML 103 Escravos Light
2 Moni Pulo OML 114 Antan
3 Dubril Oil OML 96 Escravos
4 Amni OMLs 112/117 Ima/Okoro
5 Atlas OML 109 Ukpokiti
6 Express Petroleum/Sheba OML 108 Ukpokiti
7 Continental Oil OML 59 Penington
8 Cavendish Petroleum OML 110 Obe
9 NAE/Allied/Camac OMLs 120/121 Oyo

 

NPDC & PARTNERS – INDEPENDENTS

 

  Company/Partners Blocks
OML(s)
Terrain NPDC Interest

(%)

1 NPDC (Sole) 65/111 Land 100
2 NPDC/AGIP ENERGY 119 Continental Shelf 100
3 NPDC/SEPLAT 4/38/41 Land 55
4 NPDC/
FIRST HYDROCARBON
26 Land 55
5 NPDC/NECONDE 42 Land 55
6 NPDC/SHORELINE 30 Land 55
7 NPDC/ ND WESTERN 34 Land 55
8* NPDC/NAOC/Oando 60/61/62/63 Land 60
9 NPDC/ELCREST 40 Land 55

 

*Awaiting execution of Final Consideration & Deed of Novation

 

MARGINAL FIELD PRODUCERS

 

S/N Company/Farmee JV Partner/
Farmor
Main Field Block
1 Niger Delta Pet. Res. Ltd Chevron Ogbele OML 54
2 Platform Pet. Ltd SPDC Asuokpu/Umutu OML 38
3 Midwestern Oil & Gas /SunTrust Elf Umusadege OML 56
4 Walter Smith Oil & Gas Co. SPDC Ibigwe OML 16
5 Pillar Oil Elf Umusati/Igbuku OML 56
6 Energia Ltd/ Oando Elf Obodugwa/ Obodeti OML 56
7 Brittania U Nig. Ltd Chevron Ajapa OML 90
8 Oriental Energy/Afren Mobil Ebok OML 67
9 Prime E&P/Sulfolk Ltd Shell Assaramatoru OML 11
10 Frontier Oil Limited Shell Uquo OML 13
11 Universal Energy Resources Ltd Shell Stubb Creek OMLs 13/14
12 Network Expl. & Prod. Ltd Shell Qua Iboe OML 14

 

CRUDE OIL QUALITY PARAMETERS

A crude oil assay is essentially the chemical evaluation of crude oil feedstocks by petroleum testing laboratories. Each crude oil type has unique molecular, chemical characteristics.

DISTILLATION YIELD PATTERN OF SOME NIGERIAN CRUDES

 

API GRAVITY OF SOME NIGERIAN CRUDES

 

COMPLETE ASSAY OF BONNY LIGHT CRUDE (MARKER CRUDE FOR NIGERIA)

 

A benchmark crude or marker crude is a crude oil that serves as a reference price for buyers and sellers of crude oil. There are three primary benchmarks, West Texas Intermediate (WTI), Brent Blend, and Dubai Crude. Other well-known blends include the OPEC Reference Basket used by OPEC, Tapis Crude which is traded in Singapore, Bonny Light used in Nigeria, Urals oil used in Russia and Mexico’s Isthmus.

 

    Crude BONNY LIGHT TBP
    Country Nigeria DISTILLATION
                                 
                                 
        °C wt % vol % °C wt % vol %
           
        015 1.12 1.37  
      Assay 31-Jan-11 080 7.19 9.26  
 Density at 15 °C, kg/m3 849.0   Assay Quality Good   150 20.19 23.80  
 ° API 35.09     175 24.75 28.67  
 Bbl/mt 7.42     230 35.42 39.65  
 Viscosity, cSt at 10 °C 8.7     325 60.59 64.37  
 Viscosity cst at 50°C 2.9               350 66.13 69.63  
 Pour Point, °C -36.0     375 71.08 74.30  
 Wax content, wt%     550 92.43 93.68  
 Wax Appearance Temp °C     wt % vol %   565 94.35 95.39  
 R V P at 37.8 °C, kPa 24.8      
 Water %vol           Ethane 0.02 0.05    
 BSW %vol           Propane 0.21 0.35    
 NaCl mg/kg           Iso-Butane 0.28 0.42    
 Sulphur, wt % 0.15         n-Butane 0.61 0.89    
 Mercaptan sulphur, mg/kg 2      
 Hydrogen sulphide, mg/kg 1      
 Acidity mg KOH/g 0.25      
 Nickel, mg/kg 3      
 Vanadium, mg/kg 0      
 Nitrogen, wt% 0.0980      
         
PROPERTIES OF TBP CUTS
                                 
  Cut Yield Yield Dens 15°C S RSH RON RON MON MON Napht Aro RVP     Benz
LIGHT °C wt % vol % kg/m3 wt % %wt clear 0,15g/l clear 0,15g/l %vol %Vol kPa     %vol
NAPHTHA 15-65                              
  15-80 6.07 7.89 653 0.0005   77.3 83.8 76.0 82.6   2.1       2.1
  Cuts Yield Yield Dens 15°C S           Napht Aro        
HEAVY °C wt % vol % kg/m3 wt %           %vol %vol      
NAPHTHA 80-150 13.00 14.54 759 0.0032           54.5 10.4        
  80-175 17.56 19.41 768 0.0035           50.6 11.7        
  100-150 9.29 10.38 759 0.0032           50.6 11.5        
  Cuts Yield Yield Dens 15°C S RSH Smoke Acid. Cetane Freeze Pt Naphtal. Aro. Saybolt Visc cst   Flash
KEROSENE °C wt % vol % kg/m3 wt % mg/kg Point mg/g Calc °C %vol %vol Color 50 °C   Point
  150-230 15.23 15.86 815 0.010   21   34.0 -65.0   15.5        
  175-230 10.67 10.98 825 0.012       36.0              
  150-250 20.53 21.06 828 0.036       34.0              
  Cuts Yield Yield Dens 15°C S   Anilin Pt Cetane Cetane Cloud Pt CFPP Pour Pt Visc cst Visc cst KUOP Flash
GASOIL °C wt % vol % kg/m3 wt %   C   Calc. °C °C °C 50 °C 100 °C   Point
  175-400 49.38 48.40 866 0.126       46.1 0 -1.8 -4        
  230-400 38.71 37.41 878 0.157       46.6 4 2.0 0        
  230-375 35.66 34.64 874 0.147       46.3 -5 -7.0 -9        
  Cuts Yield Yield Dens 15°C S Conrad Anilin Pt Ni V Total N Bas N Pour Pt Visco cSt Visc cst KUOP Asp. C7
VACUUM °C wt % vol % kg/m3 wt % wt % C mg/kg mg/kg wt % wt% C 100 °C 150°C   %wt
DISTILLATE 375-550 21.35 19.38 935 0.28 0.20       0.1700 0.0732       11.73  
  375-565 23.27 21.09 937 0.28                      
  375-580                              
  400-565 20.22 18.32 937 0.28                      
  Cuts Yield Yield Dens 15°C S Conrad Asp C5 Ni V Total N Pene Pour Pt Visco cSt Visco cSt   Asp. C7
RESIDUE °C wt % vol % kg/m3 wt % wt % %wt mg/kg mg/kg wt %   °C 100 °C 150 °C   wt %
  > 375 28.92 25.70 955 0.34             39 25 5    
  > 550 7.57 6.32 1017 0.52 16.0   65.1 4.7 0.7200   63 1973 119   0.3
  > 565 5.65 4.61 1041 0.60             65 3514 175    
  > 580                              
* estimated value Total DTS/AM

 

A typical oil analysis laboratory

CRUDE OIL TANKER CLASSIFICATION

 

With the transportation and delivery of crude oil to the customer (Refining/Processing), the Upstream Oil Industry ends and the Downstream commences. Some classifications of the industry insert a Midstream (Refining/Processing) between the Upstream and the Downstream, leaving product distribution as the only Downstream function.

 

Compiled by Ian G. Udoh

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